Proposed sightseeing tour:
Town hall – built-up on the breakthrough of XV and XVIth centuries. Burnt in years 1719 and 1757, rebuilt in 1766. Again, almost completely burnt in 1945. Raised in years 1957 – 1961. From the original building are preserved barrel vaulted old cellars with lunettes, under the main trunk of the town hall ( nowadays „Hetman's”cafe is situated there).
At the end of XIXth century town hall’s bottom storey was occupied by the Royal Regional court, on the higher storey was situated the sessions’ hall and hall and the room of debates for the Assessor Court. The most probably before 1939, in the town hall edifice was created a gaol (Gerichtsgefängnis, eight places) which was designed for men from the area of court district B with short punishments of detention and prison . It was extirpated on 4th of April, 1944. Over the entry to the object, from the eastern side, there is a stone cartouche, founded by Adam Quasius, pastor in St Bernard's church in Wrocław and rector of the parish of St Spirit in the same city. By location of this board, after fire of the town hall in 1709 representing city’s coat of arms and two-headed eagle of Habsburg the founder manifested his sincere fond of Byczyna. The founder was native from Byczyna, son of the local weaver Jan Kwas. The cartouche was restored in 2005.
At present byczynian town hall, according to its original function, is the seat of city’s authorities and workers of the Municipal office. The edifice comprises also The Civil Registry office where marriages are contracted.
Protestant church of St. Nicolaus – formerly a Roman Catholic church, the most probably built soon after the location of the city. It was mentioned for the first time in sources from 1283. The builder of the original church was a master coming from Franconia or Thuringia. In latter part of the XIVth cent. on its place was erected a new brick temple in the Gothic style. It was plundered by Hussites in 1430. Aroud the half of the XVIth cent. it became a possession of Protestants. In years 1572 – 1574 Lutherans founded the organs which then were restored in 1609. In 1790 – 1791 the church was renewed with participation of Jerzy Kanus, a carpenter from Jaśkowice and bricklayer Jakisch from Namysłów. In years 1886 – 1888, in times of pastor H. Koelling, took place thorough renovation and getting it back to the gothic style. Works were supervised by Otto Hempel, a bricklayer and carpenter. After the WWII majority of Protestant inhabitants were forced to leave Byczyna, and the church, as a branch one, was attached to the Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession’s parish in Wołczyn. There was a cemetery on the square around the church. During archaeological investigations were found remnants of skeletons coming from the breakthrough of X-XIIIth cent. Under the church there are tomb crypts of : duke Maksymilian von Württemberg, Frankenberg family, local pastor Opollius and rector of the Municipal school in Byczyna Jan Kośny. There is a wooden Gothic crucifix in the centre, coming from so-called Cracovian school from 1530. It was made probably in the circle of Wit Stwosz pupils. There are also remainders of the polychromy from 1930 inside, and on the main nave vault is visible old polychromed frieze with acanthus motive.
The chapel of St Edwige and communal cemetery – erected in the end of XIVth cent. as the church. It played special part after 1532 , when Catholics lost the St Nicolaus church to Protestants. During that time they conducted their services just there. The most probably Duke of Brzeg, Ludwik the Ist who was a great propagator of St Edwige’s cult, was the chapel’s founder. On the beginning of the XVth cent. it became seriously damaged in the fire. Next time it burnt in 1588. On the breakthrough of XVI and XVIIth cent. it was thoroughly transformed. Since 1932 it was given the status of a cemetery chapel. It ceased to be open after finishing of the WWII. In 1977 it was repaired by local craftsmen and since then again it bears the function of the cemetery chapel.
There are no records related to the cemetery preserved until today. However, it is known that deceased were seldom buried near St Edwige chapel before 1736 already. Commonly, the cemetery is called old; it is situated in the south - east part of the city, near the escape route from Poznań to Upper Silesia. The cemetery was divided into two parts: Catholic and evangelical in 1758. It was enlarged in 1781 and 1869, and in 1885 it became surrounded by the present neo-gothic enclosure with three gates. In the south – western part of the cemetery drags attention XIXth century tomb of the Weber family of whom descended former evangelical sextons and bell-ringers and Herman Koeling’s tombstone – a pastor and chronicler.
Parish church of St Trinity and the Holiest Virgin Mary of Rosary (Catholic) –came into being in place of the framing church from 1712 which burnt in 1757. A new brick temple in baroque style was raised in 1767 in the western part of the city. The tower was added in 1782. There is preserved antique equipment in the interior. The main baroque altar from XVIIIth cent. with the painter's performance of St Trinity, with sculptures of holy: John Nepomucen, Edwige, Kazimierz and two bishops. Two rococo side altars: of St Joseph (north – eastern corner), with the monogram Maria in the finial and of St John (south – eastern corner), with the monogram IHS, both with angels’ figures on sides and putti in the finial, altarpieces adorned with gold ornaments. Moreover, there is a wooden font there with the bowl in shape of cornucopia, supported by angel, classicistic – baroque pulpit from XVIII/XIXth cent., neoclassical confessional from the end of XVIIIth cent.
The church of St Trinity conceals in its undergrounds the grave where the body of byczynian parish-priest is entombed: priest Walenty Latusek during whose priestly service the temple was built.
Eastern gate tower „Polish” – founded on square plan on low stone pedestal, built of bricks, two-storey, topped with ceramic tented roof. Originally it possessed pinnacles and attic and quadrilateral helmet, lower than the present one. From the western side the entry is closed semi-circularly in stone frame. Embrasures in the upper part. Elevation is crowned with three ogival little windows. Originally there existed a neo-gothic finial with pinnacles and crenellation. From the north adjoined to it a vehicular gate, disassembled in 1838. Under this gate Jan Zamojski accepted Maksymilian’s capitulation.
Western tower gate „German” – Built of broken stone, presumably raised to the original height of walls, in the higher part made of bricks, founded on square plan, at present covered with flat roof. There is an ogival passage punched in the ground floor in the end of XIXth cent.. Above, in the middle of height, narrow embrasure windows and two little windows closed semi-circularly, in rectangular niches, in each elevation.
South tower „Sandy” – somewhat ahead the front of the south defensive wall. Built of the large Gothic brick, foundations of field stone,two-storey, on the rectangle parallel to square plan, in the upper storey embrasure windows and a window closed with arch section placed in the rectangular niche. In the northern elevation two door openings.
Old granary – Neo-gothic granary from the XIXth cent., situated at the departure from the old part of the city near Wąska street and adjoining the defensive walls. Erected with the designation to storage of cereals or as a brewery. In years 1980 – 1990 there was National Veteran Footballer Club located inside. At present the listed building functions as „Granary” inn where one can taste every food and beverages.
Municipal moat – there are several passages in municipal walls; one of them led to the source of water and to the place where weavers whitened canvas. This passage was widened into an opened back-street in 1866. The source was captured in the pond then, and the terrain where the canvas were formerly whitened was levelled and planted trees.
The present shape of the moat comes from 1940. Since many years there have been bred trout in the moat. Originally the municipal moat surrounded the city along the line of stockades. Preserved fragment of the moat joins with the municipal park.
Defensive walls – Probably they came into being on the breakthrough of XV and XVIth cent., though last investigations of the walls show they were erected yet more quickly, somewhere around the XIIIth cent. They surround the city in the oval line, flattened in the longer axis in the east – west direction. Their length makes 912,5 metres. They are made of stone and brick, on foundations of erratic stones keyed with sandstone. There are three towers in the walls: Polish tower gate Poland from the east, German tower gate the west and Sand Tower from the south.
ROUTE of WOODEN CHURCHES IN BYCZYNA MUNICIPALITY RUNS THROUGH:
WOODEN CHURCH OF ST JOHN BAPTIST in BISKUPICE – situated in the western end of the village, on the northern side of the road. The original temple was erected as evangelical in 1626 of Sigmund von Heydebrandt and Georg von Prittwitz’s foundation. The church remained in possession of Protestants till 1945. At present it is the property of the Roman Catholic parish in Biskupice, deanery Wołczyn in kaliska diocese.
The object was built on rectangle plan in the log cabin construction in place of the original church destroyed in 1588. In 1777 a square, three- storey tower of timber framing construction was added, covered with tented roof. Musical chorus and matronaeum were made in 1784 over the porch. In 1930’s the church was renewed, nave and chancel were restored then and ceilings, walls and rafter framing were strengthened.
PALACE – PARK COMPLEX in BISKUPICE - neoclassical palace erected approx. 1800 by Jerzy von Paczensky initiative, the property owner in Biskupice and the higher tax official in oleski district. The object was renewed in 1958 keeping the arrangement of rooms.
The palace was written on the Heritage Register List of Opolskie Voivodship on 5th of May, 1965. Andrzej Janik who adapted it for a hotel and restaurant is his owner since June 1996. In latter part of the XVIIIth cent. near the palace there was a small lanscape park created there the largest attraction of which is the antique elm alley situated on the palace axis.
WOODEN BRANCH CHURCH OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST –is situated some 400 metres north from the manor , at the hardened road running parallel to the main road. The temple is surrounded by wooden fence. It was erected in years 1766-1767 of Ernest count von Götz’s foundation, in place of the previous church, mentioned in Middle Ages.
The construction of the church of log cabin type, on brick foundation. Church is planked with battened joints, consists of the three-side closed chancel, with adjacent from the north square sacristy, square-like nave and square tower of timber framing construction, added from the western side.
Initially, the church was a place of local Protestant cult. Catholics took it over after 1945 and at present it belongs he to the parish of Holy Trinity in Byczyna. The object suffered damage during the flood of the century in July 1997; the chancel was flooded then and the floor collapsed. For many years there weren’t led any serious repairs. Only roof covering was repaired at the beginning of the 90’s.
There is antique equipment in the church: a pulpit from the XVIIth cent. the Crucifixion painting, painted on the board in 1671 by Jakub Paritius from Bolesławiec, organ prospect from beginnings of the XVIIIth cent., the main altar from 1768 made by Jan Sternberg, a baptisal angel with shell and heraldic cartouche of the Frankenbergs from 1768, locator’s bench from the Ist half of the XVIIIth cent., benches from the XVIIIth cent., a brass chandelier-spider from the beginnings of the XVIIIth cent., two fonts one of which comes from the XVIII/XIXth cent., and another from the Ist half of the XIXth cent. and altar cross from the XIXth cent. There are also epitaphs of Karol Magnus von Götz and Gottlieb Lipiński in the church.
PALACE in GOŁKOWICE - it is the oldest and the most valuable object of this type on the terrain of Byczyna municipality. It is situated in the south part of Gołkowice. It was erected in 1750 of the foundation of Ernest count von Götz, probably in the place of the older building of which are preserved fragments of cellars stone walls. It is surrounded by the landscape park. In the first years after finishing the WWII in the palace functioned school of agricultural accountancy, and from the half of 50’s, until 1973 there was four-class elementary school. The palace was bought by Andrzej Czupryn in 1982, and in 1990 – by Janusz Jasiński who began its reconstruction. Nowadays it functions as Palace – Park object Gołkowice possessing an attractive agro-touristic offer. Tourists can ride on horseback or in the cab there, have a swim in kayak and boat, walk in the park, wander, and also have a rest in nicely prepared rooms and taste delicacies prepared there.
WOODEN BRANCH CHURCH of THE HOLLIEST VIRGIN MARY, QUEEN OF POLAND – it is situated on the terrain of former court – grange complex, in its north – eastern part of the court park grounds. The temple was built of the wood in 1585 of the foundation of family von Frankenberg, owners of the village then.
The church is orientated, of log cabin construction on brick foundation, planked, consists of the three-side closed chancel to which from the north is attached a rectangular sacristy, a rectangular nave and rectangular tower in timber framing construction added from the western side. The appendix of a shed character is adjoined to the tower from the northern side. The nave, chancel and sacristy are covered with the common roof. Three- storey tower narrowing towards the top, higher than the bulk, is covered with the octagonal pyramid roof.
Originally the temple was used by Protestants. Catholics took it over after 1945 and it belongs to the Roman – Catholic parish of The Holiest Virgin Mary Assumption in Polanowice. It was restored in 1931. Décor in the interior kept its original, historical character: ceilings of nave and chancel on one level, rounded, richly decorated corners of the rood screen, matroneum over the sacristy kept open to the chancel, chorus supported by two square poles, bulged on the axis, polychromy with performances 16 heraldic cartouches woodwork detailsand carpentry. There was also preserved part of antique equipment i.a. organs from breakthrough of the XVIII/XIXth cent. and regency, architectural main altar with curly columns, originally with a pulpit.
WOODEN CHURCH of ST JACK – it is a small, but special relic on the route of Wooden Churches of Opolian Silesia. It is situated in the western end of the village, on the small knoll in surroundings of old lime-trees. The object was built as a chapel in 1529. After the duke’s of Brzeg conversion to Protestantism in the half of the XVIth cent. the church in Miechowa was taken over by Protestants. It was in their possession till 1945 r. At present it is the property of the Roman Catholic parish of St Augustine in Kostowo (deanery Trzciniaki in kaliska diocese).
The church was rebuilt in 1628 of the contemporary patron’s of the temple foundation Balthazar von Frankenberg. That time to the chapel, adapted to the chancel, was added a nave (imperceptibly higher than the chancel) in the log cabin construction. The most probably in 1753 was added a tower in timber framing construction covered with the late-baroque helmet with lantern.
The church is oriented with external walls timbered with planks in perpendicular arrangement and closed with shingle covered roof. Interior covered in painter decoration with acanthus motives and illusive sky on the ceiling. This is an example of characteristic for wooden churches folklore works, taking from patterns.
The equipment of the church is homogeneous in style. Late Renaissance architectural altar and richly decorated pulpit with figures of holy Peter and Paul and four Evangelists deserve special attention. There is also preserved from the original equipment font with painted performances of theological virtues and the locator’s bench with paint bust. Window and door woodwork is also valuable, richly adorned with painter decoration. The church was renewed in years: 1753, 1911, 1941, 1997-1999 and 2004-2006. The largest repair was conducted in the last years because of serious biological wood destructions . The church became the laureate of the all-Polish competition „Monument well cared for ”in 2008.
WOODEN PROTESTANT CHURCH In NASALE - is laid on the eastern end of the village. It was built in the XVIth cent., in Zdziechowice (Oleski administrative district), distant several kilometres east from Nasale. It was originally a Catholic temple, consisting from nave, chancel and tower. The church was taken apart in 1939 and transferred to Nasale. Unfortunately, its assemblage was interrupted by the WWII and attempt to install the tower failed. The temple was passed to protestants in 1945 who were deprived of bricked church raised in 1870 in the central part. Catholics transferred also the majority of antique equipment from wooden church. At present the church is a branch of Evangelical Church of Augsburg
The temple was built of wood in the log cabin construction, on stone brick foundation. At present it consists of square nave and narrower, lower, three-side closed chancel to which is adjoined rectangular sacristy. A small porch is adjoined to the nave from the south. The nave is covered with the gable. The church was rebuilt in 1730 and in later years several times it was repaired.
WOODEN BRANCH CHURCH of The HOLIEST JEZUS’S HEART –is situated on the edges of the village, eastern direction from the country road. The church is oriented. It was built of wood in 1580 r., when von Frankenberg were village owners. The church in the log cabin construction on stone brick foundation is planked, consists of the three-side closed chancel to which from the north adjoins sacristy, wider rectangular nave and square tower in the timber framing construction, added from the western side. Elongated chancel the most probably testifies about two stages of building which means that originally the first was erected the chapel, and with time there was nave added. Since 1945 the church belongs to the Roman Catholic parish of the Holiest Virgin Mary Haunting in Polanowice (deanery Wołczyn in kaliska diocese). On terrain surrounding the church there are remnants of cemetery established approx. in 1900 and liquidated in 70’s. The cemetery has non-readable arrangement and occupies the surface of 0,24 ha. There are 9 tombstones from the Ist half of the XXth cent there.
The church possesses antique equipment: late Renaissance cabinet, late baroque, architectural altar from approx. 1700 r. also late baroque pulpit supported on the sculpture of an angel, regency organs, lokators’ benches from the XVIIIth cent. and bell founded by Joachim Ernest von Frankenberg, cast in 1693 r. by Zygmunt Götz from Wrocław.
PALACE In PROŚLICE - extensive palace – park complex in Proślice is situated on the north– eastern side of the Pratwa river, in the southern end of the village. The palace turned its façade west is situated in the central part of the complex. This palace the most probably was built on the breakthrough of the XVIII and XIXth cent. by the count Ernst von Strachwitz. John von Strachwitz, Henry von Strachwitz, Ernst von Rittberg, Leo von Watzdorf, Emma von Watzdorf and Rudolf von Watzdorf were its next owners. The Watzdorfs were palace in Proślice owners till 1945r. After the WWII war they left to Germany and United States. Since 1946 until 2003 in the palace was seated elementary school. At present the object belongs to the Enterprise Hetman Roma Byczyna which owners is couple : Romuald and Tadeusz Kwiatek.